Pregnancy and Chiropractic

Aas-Jakobsen E, Miller J. Chiropractic Care during Pregnancy: Survey of 100 Patients Presenting to a Private Clinic in Oslo, Norway. J Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics Vol 11, No 2, Dec 2010, pp 771-774.

Alcantara, Joel, and Martine Cossette. “Intractable migraine headaches during pregnancy under chiropractic care.” Complementary therapies in clinical practice 15.4 (2009): 192-197.

Alcantara, Joel, et al. “The characterisation and response to care of pregnant patients receiving chiropractic care within a practice-based research network.” Chiropractic Journal of Australia 42.2 (2012): 60.;dn=785127118674864;res=IELHEA

Joel Alcantara, Joey D. Alcantara and Junjoe Alcantara. The use of validated outcome measures in the chiropractic care of pregnant patients: A systematic review of the literature. Journal: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 2015, Volume 21, Number 2, Page 131. DOI: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2015.01.003

Andrew CG, Eaton N, Dorey G. Pelvic girdle pain in three pregnant women choosing chiropractic management: a pilot study using a respondent-generated instrument and chiropractor’s assessment tool. Journal of the Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Women’s Health, Spring 2008, 102, 12–24.

No abstract available

Andrew CG. Considering Non-Optimal Fetal Positioning and Pelvic Girdle Dysfunction in Pregnancy: Increasing the Available Space. J Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics Vol 11, No 2, Dec 2010, pp 783-788.

Bernard M and Tuchin P. Chiropractic Management of Pregnancy-Related Lumbopelvic Pain: A Case Study. Journal: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 2016, Volume 15, Number 2, Page 129.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jcm.2016.04.003

Borggren, Cara L. “Pregnancy and chiropractic: a narrative review of the literature.” Journal of chiropractic medicine 6.2 (2007): 70-74.

Browning M. Low Back and Pelvic Girdle Pain of Pregnancy: Recommendations for Diagnosis & Clinical Management. J Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics Vol 11, No 2, Dec 2010, pp 775-779.

Drobbin, Danielle, and C. Welsh. “Chiropractic care of a pregnant patient presenting with intrauterine constraint using the Webster in-utero constraint technique: a retrospective case study.” J Pediatr Matern & Fam Health-Chiropr 2009.2 (2009): 1-3.  No link available?

Ducar, Deborah, and Clayton D. Skaggs. “Conservative management of groin pain during pregnancy: a descriptive case study.” Journal of chiropractic medicine 4.4 (2006): 195-199.

Elden, Ostgaard, Fagevik-Olsen, Ladfors Hagberg: Treatments of pelvic girdle pain in pregnant women: adverse effects of standard treatment, acupuncture and stabilising exercises on the pregnancy, mother, delivery and the fetus/neonate. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2008, 8:34 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-8-34.

Elden H, Östgaard HC, Glantz A, Marciniak P, Linner AC, Olsen MF. Effects of craniosacral therapy as adjunct to standard treatment for pelvic girdle pain in pregnant women: a multicenter, single blind, randomized controlled trial. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica  Vol 92 Issue 7.

Fallon, Joan. “The effect of chiropractic treatment on pregnancy and labor: a comprehensive study.” Proceedings of the World Federation of Chiropractic (1991): 24-31.  No link available

George, James W., et al. “A randomized controlled trial comparing a multimodal intervention and standard obstetrics care for low back and pelvic pain in pregnancy.” American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 208.4 (2013): 295-e1.

Gregory K, Rowell R. Chiropractic Care for Postpartum Pelvic Girdle Pain and Low Back pain: A Case Report. J Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics Vol 12, No 2, Dec 2011, pp.910-914.

Hall H, Cramer H , Sundberg T, Ward L, Adams J, Moore C, Sibbritt D, Lauche R.  The effectiveness of complementary manual therapies for pregnancy-related back and pelvic pain: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Europe PMC 2016, 95(38):e4723

Haavik H Murphy BA Kruger J . Effect of Spinal Manipulation on Pelvic Floor Functional Changes in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women: A Preliminary Study.  J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2016, 39(5):339-347.

Kanakaris NK, Roberts CS, Giannoudis PV. Pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain: an update. BMC Medicine 2011, 9:15.

Khorsan R, Hawk C, Lisi AJ, Kizhakkeveetitil A. Manipulative Therapy for Pregnancy and Related Conditions: A Systematic Review. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey: June 2009, Vol 64: 6, pp 416-427.

Kruse RA, Gudavalli S, Cambron J. Chiropractic treatment of a pregnant patient with lumbar radiculopathy. J Chiropr Med. 2007 Dec; 6:(4): 153-8.

Licciardione JC, Buchanan S, Hensel KL, King HH, Fulda KG, Stoll ST. Osteopathic manipulative treatment of back pain and related symptoms during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010: 202: 43.e1-8.

Lisi AJ. Chiropractic spinal manipulation for low back pain of pregnancy: a retrospective case series. J Midwifery Women’s Health 2006;51(1):e7 – e10.

Murphy, Donald R., Eric L. Hurwitz, and Ericka E. McGovern. “Outcome of pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain treated according to a diagnosis-based decision rule: a prospective observational cohort study.” Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics 32.8 (2009): 616-624.

Ohm, Jeanne. “Chiropractic care in pregnancy for safer, easier births.” International Chiropractic Pediatric Association (2001).

Oswald C, Higgins CC, Assimakopoulos D. Optimizing pain relief during pregnancy using manual therapy. Can Fam Physician. 2013 Aug;59(8):841-2.

Pennick, Victoria, and Sarah D. Liddle. “Interventions for preventing and treating pelvic and back pain in pregnancy.” The Cochrane Library (2013).

Peterson CD, Haas M, Gregory WT. A pilot randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of exercise, spinal manipulation, and neuro emotional technique for the treatment of pregnancy-related low back pain. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 2012, 20:18

Peterson CK, Mühlemann D, Humphreys BK. Outcomes of pregnant patients with low back pain undergoing chiropractic treatment: a prospective cohort study with short term, medium term and 1 year follow-up. Chiropr Man Therap 2014 Apr 1;22(1):15.

Phillips CJ, Meyer JJ. Chiropractic care, including craniosacral therapy, during pregnancy: a static-group comparison of obstetric interventions during labor and delivery. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995;18(8):525 -9.

Philips CJ. (2010) Musculoskeletal and Radicular Pain during Pregnancy, Labor and Delivery: The Concurrent Use of Spinal Manipulative Therapy (SMT), Craniosacral Therapy (CST) and Dynamic Body Balancing (DBB): Five case reports. J Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics. Vol 11, No 2, pp 797-809.

Philips CJ. Hands of Love: Seven Steps to the Miracle of Birth (2001)  (BOOK)

Pistolese, Richard A. “The Webster Technique: a chiropractic technique with obstetric implications.” Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics 25.6 (2002): 1-9.

Sadr, Shabnam, Neda Pourkiani-Allah-Abad, and Kent Jason Stuber. “The treatment experience of patients with low back pain during pregnancy and their chiropractors: a qualitative study.” Chiropractic & manual therapies 20.1 (2012): 32.

Skaggs, Clayton D., et al. “A manual therapy and exercise approach to meralgia paresthetica in pregnancy: a case report.” Journal of chiropractic medicine 5.3 (2006): 92-96.

Stuber, Kent. “The safety of chiropractic during pregnancy: a pilot e-mail survey of chiropractors’ opinions.” Clinical Chiropractic 10.1 (2007): 24-35.

Stuber KJ, Smith DL. Chiropractic Treatment of Pregnancy-Related Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review of the Evidence. JMPT Volume 31, Issue 6, Pages 447-454 (July 2008).

Stuber KJ, Wynd S, Weis CA. Adverse events from spinal manipulation in the pregnant and postpartum periods: a critical review of the literature Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 2012, 20:8

Stuge B, Garratt A, Jenssen H.K, Grotle M. The Pelvic Girdle Questionnaire: A Condition-Specific Instrument for Assessing Activity Limitations and Symptoms in People With Pelvic Girdle Pain. Physical Therapy Vol 91 no 7 pp 1096-1108.

Sutton J & Scott P. Understanding and Teaching Optimal Foetal Positioning’ New Zealand: Birth Concepts, 1995. Available online from NCT Maternity Sales.

Sutton J. Let birth be born again. (2001) Birth Concepts UK. Sarsen Press, Bedfont,

Vleeming A, Albert HB, Ostgaard HC, Sturesson B, Stuge B: European guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pelvic girdle pain. Eur Spine J 2008, 17(6):794-819.

Vireday P. Symphysis Pubis Dysfunction. International Chiropractic Paediatric Association Newsletter Jan-Feb 2003.

Wang, Shu-Ming, et al. “Complementary and alternative medicine for low-back pain in pregnancy: a cross-sectional survey.” Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 11.3 (2005): 459-464.

Williams SP: Pregnancy and Paediatrics – A Chiropractic Approach (2005) Southampton, England.

Yuen T, Wells K, Benoit S, Yohanathan S, Capelletti L, Stuber K. Therapeutic interventions employed by Greater Toronto Area chiropractors on pregnant patients: results of a cross-sectional online survey. J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2013 Jun;57(2):132-42.


Zerdecki L, Passmore S. Chiropractic evaluation and management of the pregnant patient: an update from recent literature. Midwifery Today Int Midwife. 2008 Autumn;(87):28-9, 67-8

Online resources:

The ACPWH is the Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Women’s Health, a UK based clinical interest group specialising in women’s health.

Pelvic Instability Network Scotland: